Asynchronous REST Service Using Jersey – Connection Callback

Introduction

Here I am going to give an example on how Asynchronous REST webservice with Connection Callback. The most important concept in REST is resources, which are identified by global IDs — typically using URIs. Client applications use HTTP methods (GET/ POST/ PUT/ DELETE) to manipulate the resource or collection of resources. A RESTful Web service is implemented using HTTP and the principles of REST. Typically, a RESTful Web service should define the following aspects:

  • The base/root URI for the Web service such as http://<host>/<appcontext/contextpath>/<url pattern>/<resources>.
  • The MIME type of the response data supported, which are JSON/XML/TEXT/HTML etc.
  • The set of operations supported by the service. (for example, POST, GET, PUT or DELETE).
Read more

HTTP Methods

HTTP methods are mapped to CRUD (create, read, update and delete) actions for a resource. Although you can make slight modifications such as making the PUT method to be create or update, the basic patterns are listed as follows.

  • HTTP GET: Get/List/Retrieve an individual resource or a collection of resources.
  • HTTP POST: Create a new resource or resources.
  • HTTP PUT: Update an existing resource or collection of resources.
  • HTTP DELETE: Delete a resource or collection of resources.

Prerequisites

Java 1.8+, Jersey 2.6/3.x, Maven 3.6.0/3.8.5

For more information on Asynchronous Service please go through https://jersey.java.net/documentation/latest/async.html

Asynchronous REST Server API

By default client connection of a request is processed in a synchronous mode in server in a single I/O container thread. After processing the client request, the thread returns to the I/O container and I/O container safely assumes that the request process is finished. Thus all resources associated with the client connection are released. This kind of synchronous mechanism is sufficient for requests which take relatively short execution time. But for requests which take relatively longer execution time, the association between a request processing thread and client connection is broken. Thus server-side asynchronous processing model should be used to facilitate explicitly suspend, resume and close the client connections.

I will use grizlly web server for running the REST web service.

Project Setup

Create maven project in your favorite IDE or tool and the following pom.xml file can be used for this example project.

For Jersey version 3.x, you can use the following pom.xml file:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
	<modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>

	<groupId>com.roytuts</groupId>
	<artifactId>asynchronous-rest-connection-callback</artifactId>
	<version>0.0.1-SNAPSHOT</version>
	<packaging>war</packaging>

	<properties>
		<project.build.sourceEncoding>UTF-8</project.build.sourceEncoding>
		<maven.compiler.source>11</maven.compiler.source>
		<maven.compiler.target>11</maven.compiler.target>
	</properties>

	<dependencies>
		<dependency>
			<groupId>javax.servlet</groupId>
			<artifactId>javax.servlet-api</artifactId>
			<version>4.0.1</version>
			<scope>provided</scope>
		</dependency>
		<dependency>
			<groupId>jakarta.ws.rs</groupId>
			<artifactId>jakarta.ws.rs-api</artifactId>
			<version>3.1.0</version>
		</dependency>
		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.glassfish.grizzly</groupId>
			<artifactId>grizzly-http-server</artifactId>
			<version>3.0.1</version>
		</dependency>
		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.glassfish.jersey.containers</groupId>
			<artifactId>jersey-container-servlet</artifactId>
			<version>3.1.0-M2</version>
		</dependency>
		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.glassfish.jersey.bundles.repackaged</groupId>
			<artifactId>jersey-guava</artifactId>
			<version>2.26-b03</version>
		</dependency>
		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.glassfish.jersey.containers</groupId>
			<artifactId>jersey-container-grizzly2-http</artifactId>
			<version>3.1.0-M2</version>
		</dependency>
		<!-- jersey-hk2 is required for jersey 3.1.0-M2 -->
		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.glassfish.jersey.inject</groupId>
			<artifactId>jersey-hk2</artifactId>
			<version>3.1.0-M2</version>
		</dependency>
		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.glassfish.jersey.test-framework.providers</groupId>
			<artifactId>jersey-test-framework-provider-inmemory</artifactId>
			<version>3.1.0-M2</version>
			<scope>test</scope>
		</dependency>
		<dependency>
			<groupId>commons-logging</groupId>
			<artifactId>commons-logging</artifactId>
			<version>1.2</version>
		</dependency>
		<dependency>
			<groupId>junit</groupId>
			<artifactId>junit</artifactId>
			<version>4.13.2</version>
			<scope>test</scope>
		</dependency>
	</dependencies>

	<build>
		<finalName>rest-service-authentication</finalName>
		<plugins>
			<plugin>
				<artifactId>maven-compiler-plugin</artifactId>
				<version>3.8.1</version>
			</plugin>
			<plugin>
				<artifactId>maven-war-plugin</artifactId>
				<version>3.2.2</version>
			</plugin>
		</plugins>
	</build>
</project>

For Jersey version 2.6, you can use the following pom.xml file:

Modify the pom.xml file to add required dependencies for the project.

<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
	xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
	xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/maven-v4_0_0.xsd">
	<modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
	<groupId>com.roytuts</groupId>
	<artifactId>asynchronous-rest-connection-callback</artifactId>
	<packaging>war</packaging>
	<version>0.0.1-SNAPSHOT</version>
	<url>http://maven.apache.org</url>
	<properties>
		<jersey.version>2.6</jersey.version>
	</properties>
	<dependencies>
		<dependency>
			<groupId>javax.ws.rs</groupId>
			<artifactId>javax.ws.rs-api</artifactId>
			<version>2.0</version>
		</dependency>
		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.glassfish.grizzly</groupId>
			<artifactId>grizzly-http-server</artifactId>
			<version>2.3.11</version>
		</dependency>
		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.glassfish.jersey.containers</groupId>
			<artifactId>jersey-container-servlet</artifactId>
			<version>${jersey.version}</version>
		</dependency>
		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.glassfish.jersey.bundles.repackaged</groupId>
			<artifactId>jersey-guava</artifactId>
			<version>${jersey.version}</version>
		</dependency>
		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.glassfish.jersey.containers</groupId>
			<artifactId>jersey-container-grizzly2-http</artifactId>
			<version>${jersey.version}</version>
		</dependency>
		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.glassfish.jersey.test-framework.providers</groupId>
			<artifactId>jersey-test-framework-provider-inmemory</artifactId>
			<version>${jersey.version}</version>
		</dependency>
		<dependency>
			<groupId>javax.servlet</groupId>
			<artifactId>javax.servlet-api</artifactId>
			<version>3.0.1</version>
			<scope>provided</scope>
		</dependency>
		<dependency>
			<groupId>commons-logging</groupId>
			<artifactId>commons-logging</artifactId>
			<version>1.1.1</version>
		</dependency>
		<dependency>
			<groupId>junit</groupId>
			<artifactId>junit</artifactId>
			<version>4.12</version>
			<scope>test</scope>
		</dependency>
	</dependencies>
	<build>
		<finalName>asynchronous-rest-connection-callback</finalName>
		<plugins>
			<plugin>
				<groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
				<artifactId>maven-compiler-plugin</artifactId>
				<version>3.6.1</version>
				<configuration>
					<source>1.8</source>
					<target>1.8</target>
				</configuration>
			</plugin>
		</plugins>
	</build>
</project>

Deployment Descriptor – web.xml

Create a web.xml file to use the jersey servlet. According to the servlet version (3 or 4), you can choose web-app definition.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!-- <web-app xmlns="http://xmlns.jcp.org/xml/ns/javaee"
	xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
	xsi:schemaLocation="http://xmlns.jcp.org/xml/ns/javaee
		 http://xmlns.jcp.org/xml/ns/javaee/web-app_3_1.xsd"
	version="3.1"> -->

<web-app version="4.0"
	xmlns="http://xmlns.jcp.org/xml/ns/javaee"
	xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
	xsi:schemaLocation="http://xmlns.jcp.org/xml/ns/javaee 
   http://xmlns.jcp.org/xml/ns/javaee/web-app_4_0.xsd">

	<display-name>Asynchronous REST Connection Callback using Jersey</display-name>

	<servlet>
		<servlet-name>REST</servlet-name>
		<servlet-class>org.glassfish.jersey.servlet.ServletContainer</servlet-class>
		<init-param>
			<param-name>jersey.config.server.provider.packages</param-name>
			<param-value>com.roytuts.asynchronous.rest.connection.callback.resources</param-value>
		</init-param>
		<load-on-startup>1</load-on-startup>
	</servlet>

	<!-- Map /rest/* to Jersey -->
	<servlet-mapping>
		<servlet-name>REST</servlet-name>
		<url-pattern>/*</url-pattern>
	</servlet-mapping>
</web-app>

REST Service

Create a REST resource class as shown below.

For Jersey 2.6, use the following class with imports:

import javax.ws.rs.GET;
import javax.ws.rs.Path;
import javax.ws.rs.container.AsyncResponse;
import javax.ws.rs.container.ConnectionCallback;
import javax.ws.rs.container.Suspended;
import javax.ws.rs.core.Response;

@Path("/resource")
public class AsyncResource {
	@GET
	@Path("/asyncConnCallback")
	public void asyncGetConnectionCallback(@Suspended final AsyncResponse asyncResponse) {
		asyncResponse.register(new ConnectionCallback() {
			@Override
			public void onDisconnect(AsyncResponse asyncResponse) {
				asyncResponse.resume(
						Response.status(Response.Status.SERVICE_UNAVAILABLE).entity("Connection Callback").build());
			}
		});
		new Thread(new Runnable() {
			@Override
			public void run() {
				String result = veryExpensiveOperation();
				asyncResponse.resume(result);
			}
			private String veryExpensiveOperation() {
				return "Very Expensive Operation with Connection Callback";
			}
		}).start();
	}
}

For Jersey 3.x, use the following class:

import jakarta.ws.rs.GET;
import jakarta.ws.rs.Path;
import jakarta.ws.rs.container.AsyncResponse;
import jakarta.ws.rs.container.ConnectionCallback;
import jakarta.ws.rs.container.Suspended;
import jakarta.ws.rs.core.Response;

@Path("/resource")
public class AsyncResource {
	
	@GET
	@Path("/asyncConnCallback")
	public void asyncGetConnectionCallback(@Suspended final AsyncResponse asyncResponse) {
		asyncResponse.register(new ConnectionCallback() {
			@Override
			public void onDisconnect(AsyncResponse asyncResponse) {
				asyncResponse.resume(
						Response.status(Response.Status.SERVICE_UNAVAILABLE).entity("Connection Callback").build());
			}
		});
		
		new Thread(new Runnable() {
			@Override
			public void run() {
				String result = veryExpensiveOperation();
				asyncResponse.resume(result);
			}

			private String veryExpensiveOperation() {
				return "Very Expensive Operation with Connection Callback";
			}
		}).start();
	}

}

Junit Class

Create JUnit test class for testing the service.

For Jersey 2.6, use the following class:

import java.net.URI;
import java.util.concurrent.ExecutionException;
import java.util.concurrent.Future;
import javax.ws.rs.client.AsyncInvoker;
import javax.ws.rs.client.Client;
import javax.ws.rs.client.ClientBuilder;
import javax.ws.rs.client.WebTarget;
import javax.ws.rs.core.Response;
import org.glassfish.grizzly.http.server.HttpServer;
import org.glassfish.jersey.grizzly2.httpserver.GrizzlyHttpServerFactory;
import org.glassfish.jersey.server.ResourceConfig;
import org.junit.After;
import org.junit.Before;
import org.junit.Test;

public class AsyncResourceTest {
	private HttpServer httpServer;
	private WebTarget webTarget;
	private static final URI baseUri = URI.create("http://localhost:9090/rest/");
	@Before
	public void setup() throws Exception {
		// create ResourceConfig from Resource class
		ResourceConfig rc = new ResourceConfig(AsyncResource.class);
		// create the Grizzly server instance
		httpServer = GrizzlyHttpServerFactory.createHttpServer(baseUri, rc);
		// start the server
		httpServer.start();
		// configure client with the base URI path
		Client client = ClientBuilder.newClient();
		webTarget = client.target(baseUri);
	}
	@After
	public void tearDown() throws Exception {
		// if you want to stop the server from the input through keyboard then uncomment
		// below two lines
		// System.out.println(String.format("Application started.%nHit enter to stop it..."));
		// System.in.read();
		// stop the server
		httpServer.shutdown();
	}
	@Test
	public void testAsyncGetConnectionCallback() throws InterruptedException, ExecutionException {
		final AsyncInvoker asyncInvoker = webTarget.path("resource/asyncConnCallback").request().async();
		final Future<Response> responseFuture = asyncInvoker.get();
		System.out.println("Request is being processed asynchronously.");
		final Response response = responseFuture.get();
		// get() waits for the response to be ready
		System.out.println("Response received : " + response);
		System.out.println("Response from GET method : " + response.readEntity(String.class));
	}
}

For Jersey 3.x, use the following class:

import java.net.URI;
import java.util.concurrent.ExecutionException;
import java.util.concurrent.Future;

import org.glassfish.grizzly.http.server.HttpServer;
import org.glassfish.jersey.grizzly2.httpserver.GrizzlyHttpServerFactory;
import org.glassfish.jersey.server.ResourceConfig;
import org.junit.After;
import org.junit.Before;
import org.junit.Test;

import jakarta.ws.rs.client.AsyncInvoker;
import jakarta.ws.rs.client.Client;
import jakarta.ws.rs.client.ClientBuilder;
import jakarta.ws.rs.client.WebTarget;
import jakarta.ws.rs.core.Response;

public class AsyncResourceTest {

	private HttpServer httpServer;
	private WebTarget webTarget;
	private static final URI baseUri = URI.create("http://localhost:9090/rest/");

	@Before
	public void setup() throws Exception {
		// create ResourceConfig from Resource class
		ResourceConfig rc = new ResourceConfig(AsyncResource.class);
		
		// create the Grizzly server instance
		httpServer = GrizzlyHttpServerFactory.createHttpServer(baseUri, rc);
		
		// start the server
		httpServer.start();
		
		// configure client with the base URI path
		Client client = ClientBuilder.newClient();
		webTarget = client.target(baseUri);
	}

	@After
	public void tearDown() throws Exception {
		// if you want to stop the server from the input through keyboard then uncomment
		// below two lines
		// System.out.println(String.format("Application started.%nHit enter to stop
		// it..."));
		// System.in.read();
		// stop the server
		httpServer.shutdown();
	}

	@Test
	public void testAsyncGetConnectionCallback() throws InterruptedException, ExecutionException {
		final AsyncInvoker asyncInvoker = webTarget.path("resource/asyncConnCallback").request().async();
		final Future<Response> responseFuture = asyncInvoker.get();
		
		System.out.println("Request is being processed asynchronously.");
		
		final Response response = responseFuture.get();
		
		// get() waits for the response to be ready
		System.out.println("Response received : " + response);
		System.out.println("Response from GET method : " + response.readEntity(String.class));
	}

}

Testing Asynchronous REST with Connection Callback

Run the JUnit test class, you will get the following output:

Request is being processed asynchronously.
Response received : InboundJaxrsResponse{ClientResponse{method=GET, uri=http://localhost:9090/rest/resource/asyncConnCallback, status=200, reason=OK}}
Response from GET method : Very Expensive Operation with Connection Callback

Source Code

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